Chapter 11: Digital Pulse Analyzer (DPA)

 

                                        Digital Pulse Analyzer (DPA) - Arterial (Circulation) Testing (Preventive Medicine)

 

Are you at risk ?

           The major culprit of most heart diseases and other cardiovascular diseases is the slow,silent and steady build-up of fatty plaque deposits within the arteries. The arteries carry oxygen-rich blood to our heart, brain and limbs. When one of these vessels narrows and blood flow is reduced, an attack can occur at any moment; often with no prior warning.

Risk Factors

            Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most preventable diseases. More than 62 million Americans are living with heart disease, stroke and other related diseases. Over 1 million will die this year alone. For many their first symptom is "Sudden Death", ending their life and altering the lives of their families forever.

The Digital Pulse Analyzer (DPA)

             The DPA accurately measures the elasticity of small and large arteries and provides health care practitioners with critical information regarding arterial aging. This FDA-approved device is non-invasive, and can provide results in minutes. Accumulating evidence suggests that abnormalities in the pulsatile characteristics of arteries occur early in the disease process associated with increased cardiovascular risk, and can be favorably modified by therapeutic interventions. The use of the DPA can help doctors reduce cardiovascular disease in their patient populations through early detection and prevention, and ultimately assist to decrease the associated financial costs placed on the health care industry. Cardiovascular disease is the number one killer in the United States with an estimated economic cost of approximately $298 billion dollars.

What is Pulsewave Analysis

 

Our Heart can't live without oxygen

 

 

Your Vascular System

 

We start with Pulsewave Recognition

 

Aortic Ejection

 

Estimated Left Ventricular Ejection Time

 

Age or fitness level chart

 

Large Artery Circulation

 

Large to small artery circulation

 

Dicrotic Elastic Index

 

Peripheral Arteries

 

PTG Waveform Elasticity Loss

 

PTG Waveform Your Cardio Destiny

 

PTG Waveform Your Cardio Destiny

 

APG Waveform - Accelerated Plethysmograph

 

APG Waveform

 

*Major clinical reference:

IT ALL STARTS IN THE WALL: Early Detection of Vascular Disease through Arterial Waveform Analysis, Jay N. Cohn,M.D., Professor of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical School, Cardiovascular Division, Minneapolis, Minnesota

 

 

 

                                             Digital Pulse Analyzer (DPA) - Heart Rate Variability (Preventive Medicine)  

             

The Digital Pulse Analyzer (DPA) has a software program that provides measurement of Heart Rate Variability (HRV). Low HRV has been shown in numerous longitudinal studies to be related to a higher mortality rate in both healthy and unhealthy subjects. It thus can be shown to be a strong predicator of all-cause mortality. The heart is not just a simple pump, but also a complex sensory organ with its own functional "heart brain" that communicates with and influences the brain via the nervous system, hormonal system and other pathways. Research has shown that these influences profoundly affect brain function and most of the body's major organs. Science now confirms that stress significantly increases the risk of heart disease, including sudden cardiac death. Unmanaged emotional stress is equally if not more important than physical variables in determining health outcomes. A conservative estimate is that 75% of visits to primary care physicians are due to stress-related disorders.  Cardiovascular-related issues are not the only uses for the DPA.  Psychologists are increasingly recognizing the importance of HRV. A number of studies have demonstrated that patients with anxiety, phobias and post-traumatic stress disorder (PSTD) consistently show lower HRV, even when not exposed to a trauma related prompt. Importantly, this relationship existed independent of age, gender, cardio-respiratory fitness heart rate, blood pressure and respiration rate.

Heart Rate Variability and the Autonomic Nervous System

 

The organs of our body, such as the heart, stomach, and intestines, are regulated by a part of the nervous system called the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS). The ANS controls many organs and muscles within the body. We are unaware of the ANS because it functions in an involuntary, reflexive manner. For example, we do not notice when blood vessels change size or when our heart beats faster. The ANS is divided into two major parts: the Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) and the Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS). The SNS responds to "fight and flight" situations. When called into action, blood pressure increases, the heart beats faster, and digestion slows down. The PNS allows the body to "rest and digest", which in turn lets the body save energy -blood pressure decreases, the heart beats slower and digestion can start. The sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the i\NS regulate the activity of the sinoatrial node, the cardiac pacemaker. You can think of the SNS as the accelerator and the PNS as the brake. One is just as important as the other. The Heart Rate Variability Test measures the balance and efficiency of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS).

SUMMARY OF EVENTS OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

 

STRUCTURE SYMPATHETIC PARASYMPATHETIC
  STIMULATION STIMULATION
Iris (eve muscle) Pupil Dilation Pupil Constriction
Salivary Glands Saliva Production Reduced Saliva Production
Oral Nasal Mucosa Mucus Production Reduced Mucus Production
Heart  Heart Rate and Force increased Heart Rate and Force decreased
Lung Bronchial Muscle Relaxed Bronchial Muscle Contracted
Stomach Peristalsis Reduced Gasuic Juice Secreted: Motility Increased
Small Intestine Motility Reduced Digestion Increased
Large Intestine Motility Reduced Secretions and Motility Increased
Liver Increased Conversion of Glycogen to Glucose  
Kidney Decreased Urine Secretion Increased Urine Secretion
Adrenal Medulla Norepinephrine and Epinephrine Secreted  
Bladder Wall Relaxed Sphincter Closed Wall Contracted Sphincter Relaxed

 

Heart rate variability (HRV) is defined as the variation in the length of the intervals, measured in milliseconds between heartbeats. Two people can have the same heart rate (pulse), but have very different variability. For example, two people both with an average pulse rate of 65 beats per minute could have very different variability of heart rate over a 5-minute measurement period. For instance, the first person could have variability of only 63-65 beats whereas the second person could have much higher variability between 58-72 beats. Studies have shown that low heart rate variability is a valuable indicator or predictor of illness and mortality. HRV shows how well a person adapts to changes in the environment. In the healthy individual there is a coordination or balance between the SNS and PNS that can constantly change to meet the needs of the body's of emotions, thoughts, or activities. The Digital Pulse Analyyzer software analyzes imperceptible changes in the heart rate waveforms and provides indices and evaluates the current body condition and activities and balances of the autonomic nervous system.

Heart rate variability (HRV) is defined as the variation in the length of the intervals, measured in milliseconds between heartbeats. Two people can have the same heart rate (pulse), but have very different variability. For example, two people both with an average pulse rate of 65 beats per minute could have very different variability of heart rate over a 5-minute measurement period. For instance, the first person could have variability of only 63-65 beats whereas the second person could have much higher variability between 58-72 beats. Studies have shown that low heart rate variability is a valuable indicator or predictor of illness and mortality. HRV shows how well a person adapts to changes in the environment. In the healthy individual there is a coordination or balance between the SNS and PNS that can constantly change to meet the needs of the body's of emotions, thoughts, or activities. The Digital Pulse Analyzer software analyzes imperceptible changes in the heart rate waveforms and provides indices and evaluates the current body condition and activities and balances of the autonomic nervous system.